class Device()

class cairo.Device

A Device represents the driver interface for drawing operations to a Surface.

New in version 1.14.


New in version 1.17.0: cairo.Device can be used as a context manager:

# device.finish() will be called on __exit__
with cairo.ScriptDevice(f) as device:
finish() None

This function finishes the device and drops all references to external resources. All surfaces, fonts and other objects created for this device will be finished, too. Further operations on the device will not affect the device but will instead trigger a Status.DEVICE_FINISHED error.

This function may acquire devices.

New in version 1.14.

flush() None

Finish any pending operations for the device and also restore any temporary modifications cairo has made to the device’s state. This function must be called before switching from using the device with Cairo to operating on it directly with native APIs. If the device doesn’t support direct access, then this function does nothing.

This function may acquire devices.

New in version 1.14.

acquire() None

cairo.Error – If the device is in an error state and could not be acquired.

Acquires the device for the current thread. This function will block until no other thread has acquired the device.

If the does not raise, you successfully acquired the device. From now on your thread owns the device and no other thread will be able to acquire it until a matching call to release(). It is allowed to recursively acquire the device multiple times from the same thread.

After a successful call to acquire(), a matching call to release() is required.


You must never acquire two different devices at the same time unless this is explicitly allowed. Otherwise the possibility of deadlocks exist. As various Cairo functions can acquire devices when called, these functions may also cause deadlocks when you call them with an acquired device. So you must not have a device acquired when calling them. These functions are marked in the documentation.

New in version 1.14.

release() None

Releases a device previously acquired using acquire(). See that function for details.

New in version 1.14.

class ScriptDevice(Device)

class cairo.ScriptDevice(fobj: cairo._FileLike | cairo._PathLike)

New in version 1.14.

__init__(fobj: cairo._FileLike | cairo._PathLike) None

fobj – a filename or writable file object.

Creates a output device for emitting the script, used when creating the individual surfaces.

set_mode(mode: ScriptMode) None

mode – the new mode

Change the output mode of the script

get_mode() ScriptMode

the current output mode of the script

Queries the script for its current output mode.

write_comment(comment: str) None

comment – the string to emit

Emit a string verbatim into the script.

from_recording_surface(recording_surface: RecordingSurface) None

recording_surface – the recording surface to replay



Converts the record operations in recording_surface into a script.